When a photo-sensitizing dye like PurePurge™ absorbs light, the molecules become excited into a higher energy state. The photosensitive dye then transfers this energy to the oxygen molecules around it.
This energy transforms "ground-state" oxygen molecules into ROS (reactive oxygen species) molecules called Singlet Oxygen.
These newly formed Singlet Oxygen molecules subsequently destroy microbes that they encounter through radical oxidation. Singlet oxygen has no specific target within a microbe - it is completely nonselective.
Resistance to microbicides usually develops either when they are used incorrectly, or where the microbicide targets only a specific part of the organism. Singlet Oxygen molecules created by PurePurge™ oxidizes the entire cell instead of poisoning or puncturing a specific site.
The antimicrobial action of singlet oxygen from photosensitive particles is well documented.* Below, is an explanation of how photosensitive dyes in the presence of light, create reactive oxygen species, (ROS) including singlet oxygen. (refer Fig.4)
PurePurge™ has perfected the technique of producing large quantities of singlet oxygen in an commercially viable manner, by creating a self renewing, non-depleting source of singlet oxygen.
"...The photosensitizer (the dye), in a singlet ground state (S0), is photo-excited to the first excited singlet state, electron spins paired (* S1) by visible light incident on the photosensitizer. This excited state can either relax to the ground state via fluorescence (F), or it may undergo an intersystem crossing (ISC) to a triplet excited state with the electron spins unpaired (* T1). It is this triplet state which leads to the antimicrobial action, as there are two available pathways of reactions.
The Type I reactions involve electron transfer and result in the production of radicals such as superoxide and the hydroxyl radical. The Type II reactions involve energy transfer from the triplet excited state, as it relaxes back to the ground state. Energy is typically transferred to ground state triplet oxygen, which is excited to a singlet state. Principally, it is the production of singlet oxygen by the Type II process which is thought to act upon the bacterial cells, but the reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by the Type I process are similarly destructive to cells..."
*R. Bonnett, Photosensitizers of the Porphyrin and Phthalocyanine Series for Photodynamic Therapy- 1995
The singlet oxygen technology within PurePurge™ provides a safe, proven, self-renewing, and sustainable source of disinfection.
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